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    Introduction to Node.js

    Author: Rachael Sim


    This chapter assumes that the reader is familiar with JavaScript and asynchronous programming. If you are not familiar with asynchronous programming, a good resource to checkout is the asynchronous programming section of the You Don't Know JS guide as asynchronous programming is key in Node.

    Node.js is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient. --

    Node is mostly used in back-end and server side scenarios. For example, LinkedIn mobile app backend is built on Node JS and Uber built its massive matching system between customers and drivers on Node.js. However, Node can also be used in the front-end to automate tasks such as building, testing, pre and post processing code.


    Why should you use Node?

    Benefit 1: Easy to get started

    To install Node, simply download the installer from the official Node.js website based on your OS and run it. This should install both Node and npm. npm is a tool which will help you to search, install and manage node.js packages. The use of npm will be explained in the next section.

    Here is an example of how to write a working Node.js server taken from codeburst.

    It is extremely short and simple but it demonstrates how a Node.js application import required modules, create a server to listen to client's request, read the request and returns a response.

    Create a file server.js with following content:

    const http = require('http');
    const hostname = '';
    const port = 3000;
    const server = http.createServer(function(req, res) {
      res.statusCode = 200;
      res.setHeader('Content-Type', 'text/plain');
      res.end('Hello World');
    server.listen(port, hostname, function() {
      console.log('Server running at http://' + hostname + ':' + port + '/');

    After you save the file, you can execute it from your terminal:

    $ node server.js
    Server running at

    To test the server, open a browser tab and navigate to http://localhost:3000/. You should see 'Hello world'.

    Read on to find out about how to incorporate external dependencies, manage them and use Node's module system to organize your code.

    Benefit 2: Avoid synchronization problems and overheads

    Node is designed to be event-driven. When an event happens e.g. an I/O event is complete, the event handler/callback function will be enqueued in a queue where it will be subsequently scheduled to run by the event loop. The main event loop (where Javascript code is executed) is single-threaded.

    This means that we can avoid thread overheads and synchronization problems including deadlocks and race conditions.

    Benefit 3: Fast for I/O intensive tasks

    This is due to the non-blocking I/O model.

    When file and other I/O operations requests are made in Python or Java, they are blocking -- subsequent requests (in the same thread) have to be enqueued and can only be processed after the current operation and request completes. Meanwhile, the program remains idle. In contrast, Node.js has an event loop which delegates the actual tasks to other systems (e.g. file system and databases) and it is almost never blocked after delegation. While an I/O operation is incomplete, the event loop can still process subsequent requests.

    Benefit 4: Use JavaScript for both front and back-end development

    Using Node for back-end development makes it possible to share and reuse code between the front-end and back-end. Teams can be more efficient and less reliant on documentation as they can read the code directly. The team can also become more cross-functional as developers can contribute to both development.

    Benefit 5: Easy dependency management with npm

    Node Package Manager (npm) is used to

    • Search for node.js packages online
    • Install node.js packages from the command line, manage versions and dependencies effectively and easily

    To load dependencies, anyone who want to use your project will just need to run the following command in the command shell.

    $ npm install

    This command will locate the package.json file (a file that contains all metadata information about a Node application) in the root directory and install all the dependencies specified in it.

    A basic package.json has the following structure.

      "name": "folder_name",
      "version": "1.0.0",
      "description": "",
      "main": "index.js",
      "scripts": {
        "test": "echo \"Error: no test specified\" && exit 1"
      "keywords": [],
      "author": "",
      "license": "ISC"

    Every package needs a name and a version. Together, they should form a unique identifier. When a package is updated, the version number must be updated. A good description string and keywords e.g. ["promise", "lock"] will help others to discover your package.

    The dependencies property specifies dependencies needed in production while the devDependencies property specifies dependencies needed in development. It is also used to ensure consistency.

      "dependencies": {
        "express": "~3.0.1",
        "bluebird": "^3.4.7",
      "devDependencies": {
        "eslint": "^4.16.0",
        "eslint-config-airbnb-base": "^12.1.0",
        "eslint-plugin-import": "^2.8.0"

    The dependencies property maps to an object that has the name and version range for each dependency. It is common to find carets (^) and tildes (~) in the version range. To understand what they are for, checkout NodeSource's article on semvers. It is important to specify an appropriate version range to ensure consistency and so that users and developers will have compatible versions. For example, it is not advisable to always use the latest version of a dependency as it might introduce breaking changes (e.g. deprecate API) and the use of different versions by different developers and users might make debugging harder.

    It is possible and easier to install a new dependency and update package.json directly from the command line with

    $ npm install <package_name> --save

    When a dependency is installed, the package's code will be added to the local /node_modules folder.

    The module section describes how to import packages in your code.

    Benefit 6: npm scripts is versatile and help to save time in the development process

    package.json also contains a scripts property. It is a useful tool that can be used to perform repetitive tasks such as testing and building. scripts takes in an object. For each property, the key is the name of the command and the corresponding value is the actual command that will be run.

    For example, inside your package.json, you might have

      "scripts": {
          "build": "node app.js",
          "lint": "eslint **/*.js",
          "lint-fix": "eslint --fix **/*.js"

    Running npm run build in the command shell will execute node app.js and similarly npm run lint-fix will fix your linting errors in your JavaScript files. npm scripts are much more powerful - you can use them as shortcuts to uglify JavaScript, auto-prefix CSS and even execute multiple tasks at a go. To find out more about how you can use npm scripts, refer to freeCodeCamp's Introduction to NPM Scripts.

    Benefit 7: Easy to reuse code from others

    Node module system allows you to include other Javascript files and thus makes it easy to reuse external libraries and organize your code into separate parts with limited responsibilities.

    Node comes bundled with useful core modules such as the fs (file system) module which includes classes, methods and events to deal with file I/O operations and the http module which helps Node to transfer data over HTTP.

    There are also useful and well-tested non-core modules maintained by the community and external developers such as Bluebird for promises. Before importing them, remember to install them and include them in your package.json dependencies by following the instructions from the npm section.

    Importing modules is simple - just use the require() function and provide the module identifier or the file path.

    const http = require('http'); // import a core module
    const Promise = require('bluebird'); // import a non-core module

    Node will first check if the module identifier passed to require is a core module or a relative path. If so, it will return the core module or the object which references the value of module.exports in the specified file path respectively. Otherwise, Node will attempt to load the module from the node_modules folder in the parent directory of the current module.

    Benefit 8: Good support

    npm (Node Package Manager) is the largest ecosystem of open source libraries in the world. You can find a wide range of helpful and well-tested packages that can serve your needs on npmjs.

    Benefit 9: Support for better code organization

    We can also create separate files and modules in our codebase such that each module is focused on a single functionality. This makes your code more maintainable and testable.

    To export the Parser constructor in parser.js,

    function Parser(options) {
        this._options = options || {};
    Parser.prototype.parse = function (content) {
      // insert code here
    module.exports = Parser; // override the exports object

    The Parser constructor will then be returned whenever the require function is used to include the Parser module. It can be used to create Parser objects in other files in the project, for example,

    const parser = require('../parser') // import content from parser.js based on relative file path. The js extension is assumed and can be excluded.
    const content = 'some content';
    const newParser = new Parser();

    To better understand how to use module.exports, checkout Tendai Mutunhire's article.

    Use cases

    Node.js is good for

    • Processing high volumes of IO-bound requests. A single instance of a Node server will be more efficient and can serve more requests with the same hardware than other usual servers (such as those written in Ruby on Rails). This makes the Node server faster and more scalable.
    • Real time apps where you have to process a large volume of requests with little delay. This includes instant messaging apps and collaborative editing apps where you can watch the document being modified live such as Trello and Google Docs. Node.js is a good choice as it can handle multiple client requests (even while waiting for responses).
    • Single-page apps where a lot of processing and rendering is done on the client's side and the backend server only needs to provide a simple API. Node can process many requests with low response times. In addition, you can reuse and share code, such as those for validation, between the client and server.

    However, Node.js is not suitable for

    • CPU-intensive jobs. Remember that Node.js is single-threaded. If the thread is busy doing CPU-heavy operations, it will not be able to process incoming requests timely. This removes the biggest advantage of Node. Perhaps, you should consider an alternative technology such as Go which supports concurrency.

    To find out more about when you should or should not use Node.js, checkout these articles by netguru and Node.js foundation.