• AB-1
  • AB-2
  • AB-3
  • AB-4
  • Collate
  • Book
  • Home
  • Contribute
  • About
  • GitHub
  • Learning Resources for Software Engineering Students »

    Best Practices with git

    Author(s): Darren Wee


    git is a popular source code management tool and commonly used in many open-source projects, especially those on GitHub.

    Best Practices

    git can be an incredibly useful tool for collaboration or it can be a terrible headache. Best practices exist in order to create a common understanding between users so that the latter does not happen.

    Best practices are guidelines that are mostly sensible, but are still guidelines. You can always choose to ignore them although best if you have a compelling reason to do so.

    Write Good Commit Messages

    Good commit messages can help reviewers or other contributors to understand:

    • the high-level changes made by your pull request/patch
    • the reasoning behind the changes made by that commit while
      • reviewing your code
      • figuring out why a piece of code that is five years old is that way

    They also assist you in the development process if you forget what has been done, or if you need to cherry-pick commits for elsewhere.

    What Constitutes a Good Commit Message

    The easiest way to attain commit message discipline is to stop putting in one-liner descriptions using git commit -m "Add some things to that.". Instead, write a proper commit message in an editor:

    # opens your editor to write a commit message properly
    git add files-to-stage
    git commit
    # like above, but shows the diff of the currently staged files
    git add files-to-stage
    git commit --verbose
    # amend the most recent commit message
    git commit --amend HEAD^

    Every commit must have a well written commit message subject line.

    1. Try to limit the subject line to 50 characters (hard limit: 72 chars)

      • Usually, only the subject line is shown in the log, conflict resolution, interactive rebase, etc.
    2. Capitalize the subject line e.g. Move index.html file to root

      • Do not end the subject line with a period.
    3. Use the imperative mood in the subject line

      • e.g. Add rather than Added or Adding or Adds
    4. Use {scope}: {change} format when applicable

      • e.g. Person class: remove static imports, or Unit tests: remove blank lines
    5. Commit messages for non-trivial commits should have a body giving details of the commit.

      1. Separate subject from body with a blank line
      2. Wrap the body at 72 characters
      3. Use the body to explain:
        • what the commit does, and
        • why it was done that way, such that
        • the reader can refer to the diff to understand how the change was done.
      4. Avoid including information that can be included in the code as comments.

    Give an explanation for the change(s) that is detailed enough so that the reader can judge if it is a good thing to do, without reading the actual diff to determine how well the code does what the explanation promises to do. If your description starts to get too long, that’s a sign that you probably need to split up your commit to finer grained pieces.

    Commit messages need to be wrapped to 72 characters or less so that the entire message can be shown without overflow on a standard, 80-column terminal while leaving room for indents/nested reply indicators if you pass .patch or .diff files via traditional mailing list (source).

    Read more: Formats and Conventions: Commit Messages

    As a litmus test, you can try to read your commit message summary in the following manner:

    If applied, this commit will your commit message summary here

    For example:

    If applied, this commit will implement getHash() functionality in HashHelper.

    Examples of Good Commit Messages

    Adapted from se-edu/addressbook-level4 (patch). This commit message follows the guidelines above and also includes the context of the change (how it worked before this patch) as it is necessary to understand why it needed to change.

    UniquePersonList#remove(Person): update return type
    UniquePersonList#remove(Person) returns true if the person passed into
    this method can be found in the internal list, and false otherwise. It
    also throws PersonNotFoundException if a person is not found.
    Returning a boolean is not required as the exception is thrown before
    the value is returned.
    Let's update the return type for UniquePersonList#remove(Person) to

    Adapted from torvalds/linux (patch).

    drm/amd/display: Fix memleaks when atomic check fails
    While checking plane states for updates during atomic check, we create
    dc_plane_states in preparation. These dc states should be freed if
    something errors.
    Although the input transfer function is also freed by
    dc_plane_state_release(), we should free it (on error) under the same
    scope as where it is created.

    More examples can be found here: Formats and Conventions: Commit Messages

    Set Up Your Editor for Commit Messages

    1. To use your editor of choice for git-related functionality, e.g. vim, do one of either in your terminal:
    git config --global core.editor "vim" # or you can do the following
    export GIT_EDITOR=vim # add to your .bashrc or equivalent
    1. Set your editor to wrap after 72 characters. In vim, you can do this by adding this to your .vimrc:
    autocmd Filetype gitcommit spell textwidth=72

    Always Commit Functional Code

    Merges to the following must always leave the project in a working state, i.e. it can be built and run on:

    • master branch, or equivalent,
    • staging branch, development branch or equivalent, if any.

    Changes to your own branches that no one else is using can have non-functioning commits. However, you may wish to hide the sausage making to squash non-functioning commits into a single, functioning commit before you make a pull request.

    Changes to your own branches that is used by others should obey always-functioning-commits rule to minimize surprise. This is especially important if you expect your branch to be cherry-picked by another collaborator because they require a specific bit of code that you wrote.


    If you need to switch between branches while in the middle of developing a commit, you can use the git stash command. Stashing saves the uncommitted changes made in your current working directly. This allows you to save your progress without having to commit non-functioning code.

    # stash your work not committed to HEAD yet by pushing it onto the stash stack
    git stash
    git stash push # equivalent to git stash
    # restore your most recently stashed work to your current working copy
    git stash pop
    # acts like git stash pop, but keeps a copy of the stash in the current stash stack
    git stash apply
    # list all stashes in the stack
    git stash list

    Stashes are a purely local construct and cannot be pushed to a remote repository.

    Read more:

    One Logical Change per Commit

    Commits are the building blocks of a codebase; each building block should contribute exactly one useful thing, like:

    • adding a new function or piece of data
    • fixing a bug
    • refactoring code or data
      • reorganizing code
      • removing typos
      • formatting code
      • changing representation of data to a different format

    Each logical change in code should translate to exactly one commit, nothing more or less. Doing so allows you to:

    • revert a particular logical change with little to no side effects
    • easily identify bad commits that caused change in behavior
    • collaborate with others easily, e.g. by cherry-picking a single logical change instead of finding a bit of this commit and a bit of that commit
    • package that logical change with a useful commit message to explain why/how you did something

    It may also become necessary to scope down what you may deem as a single logical change if it results in a very large commit, as that can also introduce other problems. For example, implementing a single, new feature can be thought of as one logical change to the codebase, but making a pull request for a single, large commit also makes the above benefits disappear.

    If you are concerned about appearances, you can always opt to hide the sausage making to clean up your commit history.

    If you have made several overlapping changes on your working directory (e.g. forgot to commit, etc), you can always perform a patch-wise stage using git add -p.

    Read more:

    Hide the Sausage Making

    Sausage making refers to the process by which code is incrementally worked on, where a series of commits (like links in a sausage) make up a branch. It is often desirable to hide the sausage making where the commit history is cleaned up so that it looks neater and is easier to follow.

    When working on a feature/fix branch, you may:

    This may clutter your history with low-level details or make it convoluted to follow for a maintainer or reviewer. Like sausage, you may enjoy eating it but not the process of making it.

    How to Hide the Sausage Making

    Hiding the sausage is typically achieved by either/both:

    • performing an interactive rebase, i.e. git rebase -i
    • patch-wise reset and stage, i.e. git reset -p and git add -p

    Ensure that you do this before:

    Read more:

    Respect Published History

    Always avoid rewriting the published history unless you are very sure of what you are doing, like:

    • You are working on your own branch that no one else is using, and

    A failed git push usually means that your local branch is behind its remote counterpart, indicating that the local and remote branches have diverged.

    $ git push origin my-branch
     ! [rejected]        my-branch -> my-branch (non-fast-forward)
    error: failed to push some refs to ''
    hint: Updates were rejected because the tip of your current branch is behind
    hint: its remote counterpart. Integrate the remote changes (e.g.
    hint: 'git pull ...') before pushing again.
    hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in 'git push --help' for details.

    Alternatively, you may also see this when a branch diversion has occurred when you run git status.

    $ git status
    Your branch and 'origin/my-branch' have diverged,
    and have 3 and 5 different commit(s) each, respectively.

    You can override this by making a force push, i.e. git push --force but that would result in rewriting the published history or overwrite changes in the divergent remote commits. Observe the guidelines and ensure that the force push can be made in good faith with respect to your collaborators.

    Read more:

    Keep Up To Date

    Working with Remotes

    Remotes refer to versions of the project you are working on that are hosted elsewhere, usually on the Internet. Remotes are very handy for managing collaboration, e.g. if you have to keep your code in sync with the upstream branch of the project, or if you need to pull code from someone else which may not be merged yet.

    You can have as many remotes as you want, each possibly being read-only or with read/write privileges.

    Remotes are managed using the git remote command.

    # view all remotes
    git remote -v
    # add a remote called "upstream" that points to
    git remote add upstream
    # branch off from the master branch of the upstream repository
    git fetch upstream # get data from upstream repo
    git checkout -b your-fancy-branch upstream/master # makes a new branch off the head of upstream/master
    # change the URL for the upstream remote from HTTPS to SSH
    git remote set-url upstream
    # remove a remote named "upstream"
    git remote remove upstream

    Read more:

    Rebase versus Merging

    You should... When ...
    merge you created a branch to develop a feature, and now you want these changes to be inside master
    rebase you created a branch from master to develop a feature, and someone else pushed a change to master before you finished

    It is generally considered good practice to rebase your feature branch onto whatever branch you're trying to patch before you make the pull request, resolving any conflicts that arise. This:

    • keeps the history clear and linear
      • makes backtracking easier
      • easy to follow history
      • reverting/rolling back is much simpler
      • you can use git bisect to find regressions on your branch easily without involving unrelated changes from master
    • ensures your changes are compatible with the head of the branch you're patching
    • makes reviewing/testing easier by not including irrelevant code by merging

    Read more:


    These are the resources used in the writing of this chapter, as well as any additional, interesting readings.

    Further Reading